Table Of Content



2.1 Factors of formation Federation of Malaya


2.2 Characteristic of Federation of Malaya


2.3 Discussion of the Formation of Federation of Malaya


2.4 Step towards formation of Federation of Malaya


2.5 Agreement on the formation of Federation of Malaya


2.6 Figure that actuator Federation of Malaya


2.7 Opposition from Political Parties and Individual Leader







Federation of Malaya was formed on 1st February 1948 to replace Malayan Union. It was formed because the Malays were very against Malayan Union and they wanted to have more power of the Muslim Malay rulers in the politics of Malaya. It is also shown that the citizen was successful in going against the British.

2.1 Factors of formation Federation of Malaya

On October 1945, The British announced a bold decision to end indirect rule in the Malay States by uniting all the states into a Malayan Union under a Governor with executive powers. It proposed to initiate a Malayan form of citizenship which would give equal rights to those who claim Malaya as their homeland.

On 1st March 1946, representatives from the 41 Malay associations and organizations formed the United Malay National Organization (UMNO). Dato Onn Jaafar was elected as the first President and the Malays at that time could be said to be more united over a single purpose than they were ever before. UMNO provided the spearhead for the deep and spreading Malay opposition to the Malayan Union. The Malay Unity was a new force to the British and also to the Chinese. UMNO passed a resolution declaring that the agreement signed by the Sultans to be null and void. On 31st March 1945, British Military Administration terminated officially.

In July 1947, the Working Committee reached the agreement and proposals for the Federation Of Malaya were put into the effect on 1st February 1948. The proposal also stated that apart from Malays, only second generation Chinese, Indians and other races would automatically qualify for the federal citizenship. Thus the Malayan Union was officially terminated on the 31st January, 1948.

Dato'Onn Ja'afar was the main character who leads the Malays protested strongly the formation of the Malayan Union. Malay people, which is the fig and the people were united and this unity has been solve other parties who support the Malayan Union.

In addition, the ability to persuade and urge the Malay people to revive the British policy of protection has helped them to reject the Malayan Union. British finally accepted the will of the political attitude of the Malays as Malays are simple. Malay people only write in the press, demonstrations and the Malay rulers sought to support the opposition to British.

British also worried that if the Malays are under stress, most likely they will be affected by the Indonesian political movement that is controlled by radical groups such as PKMM, API, AWAS and BATAS. Thus, the formation of the Federated Malay States 1948 is a step forward towards achieving the United Nations Organization.

2.2 Characteristic of Federation of Malaya

Federal Agreement 1948 has an alliance with a combined 11 states (all states except Singapore Malay.) British High Commissioner of the General Federation. He is assisted by the Executive Council and Legislative Council of the Federation. Conditions tightened citizenship.

Special protection for the Malays was placed under the authority of the British High Commissioner. Monarchy concept held. Malay Rulers was established to replace the Council of Malay.

There is a big difference in the administration when compared to the characteristics of the Malayan Union in 1946 with the Federation of Malaya, 1948.

Schedule administrative differences between the Malayan Union with the Federation of Malaya.

Malayan Union

Aspects of the

Federation of Malaya 1948

British Governor

General administration

British High Commission and the Council of Malay Rulers

British Parliament

General at the federal

Executive Council, Legislative Council of the Federation and the Council of Malay Rulers.

State Commissioner and State Conferences

Power at the state level

Sultan, Chief Minister, State Council

British Governor

Islam and Malay customs



Administrative language

Malay and English

2.3 Discussion of the formation of Federation of Malaya

The Malays around the peninsular of Malaya had strongly objected the concept of Malayan Union from January to May 1946. British also started to disagree with the concept of Malayan union when the Malays opposing the concept. During May 1946, a meeting between the kings and British was held in Kuala Kangsar. That meeting gave the kings to express out their opinion about the objection of Malayan union concept. Then, a negotiation is made by the UMNO with the British in June 1946 in Penang. In the discussion, UMNO stated that they strongly cannot accept Malayan Union. British had to hold an official negotiation with the Malays ruler due to the affirmation from the Malays who oppose Malayan Union strongly. In July 1946, the Malays ruler and UMNO had prepared their memorandum. Executive committee is established on 25 July 1946. The committee members are hold by the senior officer of British, representative of UMNO and the representative from the Malays rulers. Discussion was made few times among them at King’s House, Kuala Lumpur. There are few issues that had been brought up during the discussion which is hundred percent objections from the Malays on the Principe and structure of Malayan Union. They also issue up that there must be a Federated Malays state form. Next they disagree with the jus soli rule and they wanted back their pride as before. This also include recognization the rights of the Malays rulers. They took a long time to negotiate with each other but at last Perjanjian Persekutuan 1948 is signed. On 1 February 1948 federation of Malaya is formed. The formation of federation of Malaya is due to the importance of British’s politics for a long time. British also wanted to carry out principle of decolonize as support from United Nation.

2.4 Steps toward formation of Federation of Malaya

In the early stage British appointed 12 members in the Executive committee. There are from senior assistances of British, UMNO leader and representatives of Malay Rulers. A meeting was held in King’s House. In the meeting, the Malays propose 5 demands. The 5 demands are,

1. Malay Rulers and UMNO rejected all the Principe and structure of Malayan Union.

2. They want a federation like the concept of Federated Malays State.

3. They oppose open nationality of Malayan Union

4. They want the Malay ruler rights and policy to be recovered.

5. They want the Malay ruler to become the head of the sates again.

However the negotiation is against by the radical Malays group because none of them is in the Executive committee. Dr. Burhanuddin al Helmy (the leader of the radical Malays group). They held demonstration to oppose the Federation of Malaya. All Malayan Council of Joint Action (AMCJA) is established to oppose British and UMNO. Finally British decided to act in a fair way by building Jawatankuasa Perunding to get their opinion in preparation of agreement of Federation of Malaya 1948.

2.5 Agreement on the formation of Federation of Malaya 1948

The Agreement on the formation of Federation of Malaya was signed on January 21, 1948 at the King House and published by the British government. Perjanjian ini ditandatangani oleh Raja-Raja Melayu, dan Sir Edward Gent , sebagai wakil Kerajaan British .The agreement was signed by the Malay Rulers, and Sir Edward Gent , as a representative of the British Government. This agreement is in preparation for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on February 1, 1948. Perjanjian ini penting kerana ia memansuhkan Malayan Union dan menyatukan negeri-negeri Melayu dalam sebuah Persekutuan untuk pertama kali.This agreement is important because it abolished the Malayan Union and the Malay states united in a Federation for the first time.Kedudukan Raja-Raja Melayu juga telah dikembalikan. The position of Malay rulers had also returned. Before the Federation of Malaya, 11 states formed the British colony called the Malayan Union . Disebabkan bantahan orang Melayu yang dipimpin oleh Dato Onn Jaafar , Malayan Union dibubarkan dan digantikan dengan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, yang mengembalikan kedudukan simbolik raja-raja Melayu. Due to protests from Malay, led by Dato Onn Jaafar, the Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which returns the symbolic position of Malay rulers. Malayan Union dibubarkan secara rasmi pada 21 Januari 1948. [2]Malayan Union was officially dissolved on January 21, 1948.

Within the Federation, the Malay states were protectorates of the United Kingdom, Penang and Malacca remained British colonial territories. Like the Malayan Union before it, the Federation did not include Singapore, which before this time had usually been considered to be part of Malaya. The Federation achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957. In 1963, the federation together with Singapore, Sarawak and British North Borneo (which was renamed Sabah), which was being claimed to be part of the Sultanate of Sulu, formed a new federation called Malaysia. Singapore separated from Malaysia to become an independent republic on 9 August 1965.

Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948 shows several different features of the Malayan Union. Among them are the ruling power of the Federation of Malaya is located in the hands of British High Commissioner and he will be assisted by the Government Council (Executive Council) which consists of members of official and unofficial members appointed by the High Commissioner. Federation of Malaya Legislative Council will also have to be chaired by the Commissioner of Higher Education and has 75 members of the 14 official members, the Chief Minister of nine Malay states, two representatives from the Councils meeting of Penang and Malacca, and 50 unofficial members representing the races in the Federated Malay States, and represent the interests of business, labor and mining and rubber companies.

Formation of the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948 also returned the sovereignty of the Malay Rulers. Malay rulers were given the key rights, powers and jurisdiction over their respective state as before the war. But in terms of its impact, the power of the Malay rulers is almost equal to the Federation of Malaya Independence for more administrative powers held by the State Council and the State Council.

A Council of Rulers was established to enable the Malay rulers to discuss with the High Commissioner Imigreren related matters, held at least three times a year. Immigration-related as well, a citizen of the Malayan federation does not require any document if you want to go to a country other than his native country. Continuity of these aspects can also be associated with the consolidation of all the states under one federal unit. In this case, the Federation of Malaya consists of nine Malay states and Pulau Pinang and Melaka. Singapore remained a separate colony.

For the State level, the Sultan has ruled with the help of an Executive Council, Government and a State Legislature. Sultan or the Kings of each state is responsible for verifying any drafted law that passed the State Legislature. On the other hand, Sultan or the Kings of each state can also be approve the drafted law that did not successfully passed the State Legislature. Further, the State Government had power over their own local government, religion, education, agriculture and land.

The establishment of the Federation of Malaya 1948 also put a more important issue is the primary basis for the resistance of the Malays against the Malayan Union Citizenship matter. Malay Rulers had agreed to give citizenship to the Federation of Malaya, 300, 000 eligible non-Malays. It is also due to the nationality clauses are divided into two, namely those who acquired citizenship by operation of law, and they are entitled to ask the citizens by means of entry or demand.

Those who become citizens by operation of law of the original inhabitants of the Malay states whether born before, during, or after the date specified as the contents of clause 124 (1) (a) The Federation of Malaya Agreement, namely "Any people the Most Noble Order of the Kings for any of the Federated Malay States who were born either before, or during or after the appointed day; ". In addition, British citizens permanently residing in the states contained in the Federation of Malaya, whether before, during or after the day is also a citizen of a federal force of law. It is based on the contents of clause 124 (1) (b) and clause 124 (1) (c) Federation of Malaya Agreement, namely "any British people who were born in one of the Straits Settlements, whether before, during or after the day determined that a permanent residence in any state contained in the federal ". Further, "any British people who were born before, during or after the appointed day in any country if the father is contained in federal born in any state that is now contained within the federation or, if on the day it was born, his father was still living in the state. ". These conditions put a person is required to have parents who live permanently in place as a national federation of the force of law. A British citizen can be a citizen of the Federated Malay States by operation of law if born in any State which is contained in the Federated Malay and Malay-speaking Malay custom and practice.

Meanwhile, in Clause 25 of the Federation of Malaya Agreement, 1948, they are eligible to apply for citizenship for those born in the Federation of Malaya and has resided permanently for at least a period of 8 years from 12 years in the Federation of Malaya. A person can apply to become citizens when they live in any state in the Federated Malay States by a resident for 15 years from the last 20 years counted from the day the application immediately. Apart from one period, one must also have other conditions that behave well, enough knowledge in Malay and English, has made a declaration of permanent residence, and if the request is approved, a person must be willing to take the oath of citizenship.

2.6 Figure that actuated the Federation of Malaya

The Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed on January 21, 1948 at the King House and published by the British government. The agreement was signed by the Malay Rulers, and Sir Edward Gent, as a representative of the British Government. This agreement was in preparation for the establishment of the Federation of Malaya on February 1, 1948. This agreement is important because it abolished the Malayan Union and the Malay states united in a Federation for the first time. The position of Malay rulers had also returned. Between 1946 - 1948, 11 states formed the British colony called the Malayan Union. Due to the Malay opposition led by Dato Onn Jaafar, the Malayan Union was dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya, which returns the symbolic position of Malay rulers. Malayan Union was officially dissolved on January 21, 1948.

In this Federal Agreement, even though the Malay states became a British protectorate, Penang and Malacca remained colonies. Such as the Malayan Union, this alliance is comprised of Singapore, which was previously considered as part of Malaya. Federation of Malaya gained independence from the British Commonwealth of Nations on August 31, 1957. [3] In 1963, the Federation of Malay land, together with Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (renamed Sabah) to form a new alliance called Pakistan. Singapore was later removed from the Philippines and established a republic of their own on August 9, 1965.

Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, also known as the Father of Malaysia, or the Father of Independence was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955. The Federation of Malaya’s Legislative Assembly held the first conference in the Hall of Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Kuala Lumpur in 1948. It was inaugurated by the British High Commissioner Sir Edward Gent. The Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, Lord Listowel was also present. A.T. Newboult, the Secretary of State was the first to give out a speech.

During the Assembly, we had Dato ' Onn Jaafar as a representative of the Malay people, Dr. Ong Chong Keng as a representative of the Chinese people, and S.B. Palma represented the Indian people. Lord Listowel, on the other hand, was a representative of the King.

Dato 'Onn Jaafar stressed that the people of the Federated Malay States do not want to see foreign interference and power in the affairs of the Federation of Malaya. Representative of the Chinese people will make it clear that the Chinese people will be loyal to the Federation of Malaya. The Conference of the Federal Assembly of the first few sub-committee has been formed, namely, the Standing Committee on Finance, the Selection Committee and the Privileges Committee.

The first conference was to approve the Rang Undang-Undang Perbandaran Kuala Lumpur, Rang Undang-Undang Pemindahan Kuasa and Rang Undang-Undang Peminjaman dan Hutang. In the conference, newer unofficial representatives show good ability in the debate in the House. This is how the citizens of the UK government led the Federation of Malaya to move towards self-government and independence.

2.7 Opposition from Political Parties and Individual Leader
In January 1946 the British government published proposals for a Malayan Union, which would unite the whole of the peninsula (except
Singapore, which was to become a separate colony) under a governor and a strong central government, and which considerably curtailed the authority of the rulers and the states. These proposals were strongly resisted by the Malays, who rapidly formed a political organization, the United Malay National Organization, with branches all over the country. Their attitude was supported by a group of retired Malayan civil servants in England and the scheme for a Malayan Union was abandoned.

In its place the Federation of Malaya Agreement was signed in Kuala Lumpur on 21 January 1948, and came into force on 1 February of that year. This agreement provided for a high commissioner and a federal legislative council. A considerable degree of authority was restored to the rulers, acting in consultation with their state executive councils, and a form of common citizenship was created for all who acknowledged Malaya as their permanent home and the object of their undivided loyalty. Within this framework the settlements of Penang and Malacca remained British territory, and Singapore became a separate colony under its own governor.

The year in which the Federation was inaugurated saw the outbreak of a serious communist revolt. The communists – who had mounted a campaign of active resistance to the Japanese – had hoped to gain control of the country in September 1945, but they were forestalled by the arrival of the British military administration. During the next two years they made increasingly determined efforts to paralyze the economic recovery of the country, and finally launched a campaign of violence and murder in which the principal targets were British rubber planters and tin miners, and those Chinese who actively opposed them. A state of emergency was declared in June 1948. Captured documents have shown that the communists had hoped to declare a communist republic on 3 August 1948.

The number of active communist guerrillas probably never exceeded 7.000, the majority of them Chinese, but they proved an elusive enemy. In spite of increasingly effective measures, a communist hard core was still in armed revolt in July 1955, when a general election was held to elect members to the federal legislative council. All except one of those elected were members of the Alliance Party led by Tunku (Prince) Abdul Rahman, who then became chief minister.

Subsequently the Alliance Party, a coalition of the major communal organizations (United Malay National Organization, Malaysian Chinese Association, Malaysian Indian Congress, and, at the formation of Malaysia, Sarawak Alliance and Sabah Alliance) dominated Malayan, and then Malaysian, politics.

On 9 September 1955 Tunku Abdul Rahman's government declared an amnesty for the communists, thereby fulfilling an election promise, but this was withdrawn in February 1956 after rejection by the communists and some fruitless attempts at negotiation. The number of active guerrillas dwindled until in 1960 the state of emergency was declared at an end. Their remarkable decline since 1948 was due to the effective action of the security forces and, after 1955, to the counter-attraction that Tunku Abdul Rahman's administration had for the great majority of Malaya's people, including those of Chinese origin.

The Alliance Party was pledged to press for immediate Malayan independence. In January 1956 the chief minister led a Merdeka (independence) mission to London where, in February, agreement was reached with the colonial secretary bringing self-government into effect and envisaging full independence for the Federation within the Commonwealth by 31 August 1957. Early in March 1956 an independent commission was appointed to make recommendations for a form of constitution for a fully independent and self-governing Malaya. In May 1957 the chief minister again took to London a delegation in order to reach final agreement on independence for the Federation.

Malaya became an independent state on 31 August 1957 and remained a member of the Commonwealth. Malaya's relations with Britain after independence remained close. In 1963 the country became part of the Federation of Malaysia.


Unity between the Malays was the cause that British decided to cancel Malayan Union and change it to Federation of Malaya. However, there are some that support it especially the other races and foreigners, but the British accepted the wishes of the Malays. Formation of Federation of Malayan 1948 has placed back the status and the power of the Malays.

In conclusion, unity is important to strengthen the politic of a country. Besides that, a smart leader is also needed. So let’s together improve ourselves and the country.